[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
Main Menu
Journal Information::
Articles archive::
Publication Ethics::
Peer Review Process::
Indexing Databases::
For Authors::
For Reviewers::
Contact us::
Site Facilities::
Google Scholar Metrics

Citation Indices from GS

AllSince 2018

Search in website

Advanced Search
Receive site information
Enter your Email in the following box to receive the site news and information.
Registered in



:: Volume 31, Issue 1 (4-2023) ::
Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences 2023, 31(1): 95-106 Back to browse issues page
The Causal Relationship between the Meaning of Life and Self-Compassion with the Fear of Aging among the Elderly in Ilam: The Mediating Role of Spiritual Health
Zahra Delkhah1 , Marziyeh Alivandi Vafa * 2, Naima Moheb3
1- Dept of Psychology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
2- Dept of Psychology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran , r.vafa.a@gmail.com
3- Dept of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
Abstract:   (398 Views)
Introduction: Fear of aging is one of the important factors for aging experts in the contemporary era of psychology. A negative attitude toward aging activates the anxiety of aging in the elderly, thereby leading to an experience of morbid anxiety in old age, which is exacerbating with age. This study aimed to investigate the causal relationship between the meaning of life and self-compassion with the fear of aging considering the mediating role of spiritual health among the elderly in Ilam, Iran.
Material & Methods:  This correlational-descriptive study was conducted on 300 elderly who were selected purposefully from the statistical population based on the inclusion criteria. The required data were collected using the Meaning of Life Questionnaire by Steger et al. (2006), Self-Compassion Scale (Neff, 2003), Anxiety about Aging Scale by Lasher (1993), and Polotzin and Ellison's (1982) Spiritual Health Questionnaire. The obtained data were then analyzed using structural equation modeling.
(Ethic Code: IR.IAU.TABRIZ.REC.1401.066)
Findings: The path coefficient values in the research model indicated that self-compassion and meaning of life explained 43% and 39% of the changes related to the fear of aging directly and respectively, which is statistically significant at the 95%.
Discussion & Conclusion: The results showed that self-compassion and the meaning of life had an effect on the fear of aging through the mediating role of spiritual health.

Keywords: Fear of old age, Meaning of life, Self-compassion, Spiritual health
Full-Text [PDF 1390 kb]   (256 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Applicable | Subject: research
Received: 2022/10/3 | Accepted: 2022/12/10 | Published: 2023/04/4
1. Lester D, Abdel-Khalek A. The Collett-Lester fear of death scale: A correction. Death Stud 2003; 27:81-5. doi: 10.1080/07481180302873.
2. Golant SM. The distance to death perceptions of older adults explain why they age in place: A theoretical examination. J Aging Stud 2020; 54:100863. doi: 10.1016/j.jaging.2020.100863.
3. Tomlin VC. Age group and gender differences in fears of aging. 2006.
4. Zhang J, Peng J, Gao P, Huang H, Cao Y, Zheng L, et al. Relationship between meaning in life and death anxiety in the elderly: Self-esteem as a mediator. BMC Geriatr 2019; 19:1-8. doi: 10.1186/s12877-019-1316-7.
5. Batthyany A, Russo-Netzer P, editors. Meaning in positive and existential psychology. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
6. Raes F. Rumination and worry as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depression and anxiety. Pers Individ Differ 2010; 48:757-61. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.01.023.
7. Brenner RE, Heath PJ, Vogel DL, Credé M. Two is more valid than one: Examining the factor structure of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). J Couns Psychol 2017; 64: 696-707. doi: 10.1037/cou0000211.
8. Resnick B, Gwyther L, Roberto KA. Resilience in aging. New York: Springer; 2011.
9. Bishop AJ, Randall GK, Merten MJ. Consideration of forgiveness to enhance the health status of older male prisoners confronting spiritual, social, or emotional vulnerability. J Appl Gerontol 2014; 33:998-1017. doi: 10.1177/0733464812456632.
10. Pardo MÁ, Russo MT, Sánchez MV. A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Explorations of living in old age. Geriatr Nurs 2018; 39:9-17. doi: 10.1016/j.gerinurse.2017.04.010.
11. Schumacher RE, Lomax RG. An introduction to structural equation modeling. Sociologists Publications. First ed. 2008.
12. Steger MF, Frazier P, Oishi S, Kaler M. The meaning in life questionnaire: Assessing the presence of and search for meaning in life. J Couns Psychol 2006; 53:80-93. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.53.1.80.
13. Neff KD. Development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self Identity 2003; 2: 223-50. doi:10.1080/15298860309027.
14. Lasher KP, Faulkender PJ. Measurement of aging anxiety: Development of the anxiety about aging scale. Int J Aging Hum Dev 1993;37:247-59. doi:10.2190/1U69-9AU2-V6LH-9Y1L.
15. Ebrahimi S, Laripour R, Ghyasi H, Ramshini M, Delbari A. Grascophobia Among Student of University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science. Salmand: Iran J Ageing 2020; 15: 104-17.doi: 10.32598/sija.13.10.640.
16. Paloutzian RF, Ellison CW. Loneliness of life. In L. A. Peplau & D. Perlman (Eds.). Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory, research, and therapy. New York: Wiley Inter science 1982; pp. 224-37.
17. Hayes AF. Introduction to mediation, moderation and conditional process analysis. New York: Guilford Press 2013.
18. MacKinnon DP, Lockwood CM, Williams J. Confidence Limits for the Indirect Effect: Distribution of the Product and Resampling Methods. Multivariate Behav Res 2004; 39: 99-128. doi:10.1207/s15327906mbr3901_4.
19. Mohammadpour F, Aflak S, Abdul A, Mohammadi N, HadianFard H. Analysis of the components of the meaning of life in the elderly. Posit Psychol 2021; 7: 1-18. doi:10.22108/ppls.2021.122082.1901.
20. shokoohifar S, bakhshipour A. Mediating role of meaning of life in the relationship between mental health and psychological well-being of the elderly. CJHAA 2021; 6: 57-70.doi: 10.22088/cjhaa.6.2.5.
21. Bergman YS, Bodner E. Aging anxiety in older adults: The role of self-esteem and meaning in life. GeroPsych 2022. doi:10.1024/1662-9647/a000295.
22. Lee JE, Kahana E, Kahana B, Zarit S. The role of goal and meaning in life for older adults facing interpersonal stress. Aging Ment Health 2022;26:149-58. doi:10.2190/1U69-9AU2-V6LH-9Y1L.
23. Zheng Z, Chen H, Yang L. Transfer of promotion effects on elderly health with age: From physical environment to interpersonal environment and social participation. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019; 16:2794. doi:10.3390/ijerph16152794.
24. Varaee P, Momeni K, Moradi A. The Prediction of Psychological Well-Being Based on Religiosity and Self-Compassion in the Elderly. Aging Psychol 2017; 3: 45-54.
25. Gilbert P, Procter S. Compassionate mind training for people with high shame and self‐criticism: Overview and pilot study of a group therapy approach. Clin Psychol Psychother 2006; 13:353-79. doi:10.1002/cpp.507.
26. Neff KD, McGehee P. Self-compassion and psychological resilience among adolescents and young adults. Self Identity 2010; 9:225-40. doi:10.1080/15298860902979307
27. Allen AB, Leary MR. Self-compassionate responses to aging. Gerontologist 2014;54:190-200. doi:10.1093/geront/gns204.
28. Adams CE, Leary MR. Promoting self-compassionate attitudes toward eating among restrictive and guilty eaters. J Soc Clin Psychol 2007; 26: 1120-44. doi:10.1521/jscp.2007.26.10.1120.
29. Khorany H, Takzare E, Mohammadi F, Motalebi SA. Examining the Protective Role of Spiritual-wellbeing on Fear of COVID-19 among Community-dwelling Older Adults in 2021. Salmand: Iran J Ageing 2023; 17.doi: 10.32598/sija.2022.2778.8.
30. Yadegari R, Yousefi Afrashteh M, Hayati M, Ebrahimi L. The Relationship of Religious Orientation with Psychological Wellbeing in Elderly People: The Mediating Role of Spiritual Health. Islamic Life Style 2021; 5:85-94.
31. Rezaei F, Bayazi MH, Rajaei A. Structural Modeling of Social Health, Psycho-Physical Health, and Body Image Evaluation with the Mediating Role of Spiritual Health and the Quality of Life of the Elderly.2022;10:1296-1313. doi:10.32598/SJRM.10.6.17.
32. Saarelainen SM, Mäki-Petäjä-Leinonen A, Pöyhiä R. Relational aspects of meaning in life among older people–a group-interview gerontechnology study. Ageing Soc 2022; 42:1035-53. doi:10.1017/S0144686X20001300.
33. Ju H, Shin JW, Kim CW, Hyun MH, Park JW. Mediational effect of meaning in life on the relationship between optimism and well-being in community elderly. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2013; 56:309-13. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2012.08.008.
34. Tavares LR, Vagos P, Xavier A. The role of self-compassion in the psychological (mal)adjustment of older adults: A repeated-measures study protocol. Psychol Psychother 2022; 95:990-1002. doi: 10.1111/papt.12414.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


Ethics code: IR.IAU.TABRIZ.REC.1401.066

XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Delkhah Z, Alivandi Vafa M, Moheb N. The Causal Relationship between the Meaning of Life and Self-Compassion with the Fear of Aging among the Elderly in Ilam: The Mediating Role of Spiritual Health. J. Ilam Uni. Med. Sci. 2023; 31 (1) :95-106
URL: http://sjimu.medilam.ac.ir/article-1-7742-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 31, Issue 1 (4-2023) Back to browse issues page
مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایلام Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.17 seconds with 41 queries by YEKTAWEB 4625