[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
Main Menu
Journal Information::
Articles archive::
Publication Ethics::
Peer Review Process::
Indexing Databases::
For Authors::
For Reviewers::
Contact us::
Site Facilities::
Google Scholar Metrics

Citation Indices from GS

AllSince 2019

Search in website

Advanced Search
Receive site information
Enter your Email in the following box to receive the site news and information.
Registered in



:: Volume 30, Issue 6 (2-2023) ::
Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences 2023, 30(6): 45-51 Back to browse issues page
How Does Hypothyroidism Prolong Hospital Stay in COVID-19 Patients?
Mohamad reza Kaffashian1 , Maryam Bagheri1 , Ali Ashraf Mozafari2 , Maryam Karimian3 , Sajjad Salari * 4
1- Dept of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran
2- Dept of Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran
3- Dept of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Mostafa Khomeini Hospital, Ilam, Iran
4- Dept of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran , sajjad.salari@medilam.ac.ir
Abstract:   (667 Views)
Introduction: There is inconsistent data regarding COVID-19 prognosis in patients with background hypothyroid disorder. The present study aimed to evaluate the severity of symptoms and blood parameters in COVID-19 patients with hypothyroidism.
Material & Methods: This study investigated 100 COVID-19 patients (50 individuals with a history of hypothyroidism and 50 patients without thyroid disorder [euthyroid]). Demographic and clinical characteristics were collected from the COVID-19 registry database in Shahid Mustafa Khomeini Hospital. All patients were admitted and treated between March and December 2020. Hospitalization duration, the ICU admissions rate, and blood laboratory tests were evaluated in this study.
Findings: Hospitalization period was significantly longer in the hypothyroid group, compared to the euthyroid group (P=0.009). The number of red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin level, and hematocrit percentage were lower in the hypothyroid group (P=0.001, P=0.003, and P=0.003, respectively). Nevertheless, the number of white blood cells (WBCs) and inflammatory indicators, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were the same in both groups.
(Ethic code: IR.MEDILAM.REC.1401.186)
Discussion & Conclusion: Although background hypothyroidism had no significant effect on inflammation severity caused by COVID-19; however; it extended hospital stay in these patients. Anemia, a common problem in hypothyroidism, may explain longer hospitalization in hypothyroid COVID-19 patients.

Keywords: Blood factors, COVID-19, Hospitalization, Hypothyroidism, Inflammatory factors
Full-Text [PDF 880 kb]   (276 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: biochemistry
Received: 2022/07/19 | Accepted: 2022/09/7 | Published: 2023/02/4
1. Coronavirus WJAM. Dashboard [https://covid19. who. int/]. 2021;15.
2. Rotondi M, Coperchini F, Ricci G, Denegri M, Croce L, Ngnitejeu ST, Villani L, Magri F, Latrofa F, Chiovato L. Detection of SARS-COV-2 receptor ACE-2 mRNA in thyroid cells: a clue for COVID-19-related subacute thyroiditis. J Endocrinol Invest. 2021 ;44:1085-90. doi: 10.1007/s40618-020-01436-w.
3. Li MY, Li L, Zhang Y, Wang XS. Expression of the SARS-CoV-2 cell receptor gene ACE2 in a wide variety of human tissues. Infect Dis Poverty 2020;9:45. doi: 10.1186/s40249-020-00662-x.
4. Dutta A, Jevalikar G, Sharma R, Farooqui KJ, Mahendru S, Dewan A, et al. Low FT3 is an independent marker of disease severity in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Endocr Connect 2021;10:1455-62. doi: 10.1530/EC-21-0362.
5. Ilera V, Delfino LC, Zunino A, Glikman P, Drnovsek M, Reyes A, et al. Correlation between inflammatory parameters and pituitary-thyroid axis in patients with COVID-19. Endocrine. 2021 ;74:455-60. doi: 10.1007/s12020-021-02863-2.
6. Lui DTW, Fung MMH, Chiu KWH, Lee CH, Chow WS, Lee ACH, et al. Higher SARS-CoV-2 viral loads correlated with smaller thyroid volumes on ultrasound among male COVID-19 survivors. Endocrine 2021;74:205-14. doi: 10.1007/s12020-021-02855-2.
7. van Gerwen M, Alsen M, Little C, Barlow J, Naymagon L, Tremblay D, et al. Outcomes of Patients With Hypothyroidism and COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Front Endocrinol 2020;11:565. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2020.00565.
8. Zhang Y, Lin F, Tu W, Zhang J, Choudhry AA, Ahmed O, et al. Thyroid dysfunction may be associated with poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2021;521:111097. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2020.111097.
9. Damara FA, Muchamad GR, Ikhsani R, Hendro, Syafiyah AH, Bashari MH. Thyroid disease and hypothyroidism are associated with poor COVID-19 outcomes: A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021;15:102312. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2021.102312
10. Pereira DN, Silveira LFG, Guimarães MMM, Polanczyk CA, Nunes AGS, Costa ASM, et al. Hypothyroidism does not lead to worse prognosis in COVID-19: findings from the Brazilian COVID-19 registry. Int J Infect Dis 2022;116:319-27. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2022.01.016.
11. Coperchini F, Chiovato L, Croce L, Magri F, Rotondi M. The cytokine storm in COVID-19: An overview of the involvement of the chemokine/chemokine-receptor system. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2020;53:25-32. doi: 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2020.05.003.
12. Lippi G, Plebani M. Cytokine "storm", cytokine "breeze", or both in COVID-19? Clin Chem Lab Med 2020;59:637-9. doi: 10.1515/cclm-2020-1761.
13. Song P, Li W, Xie J, Hou Y, You C. Cytokine storm induced by SARS-CoV-2. Clin Chim Acta 2020;509:280-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2020.06.017.
14. Mancini A, Giacchi E, Raimondo S, Di Segni C, Silvestrini A, Meucci E. Hypothyroidism-Influences and Treatments. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech 2012:117-34.
15. Rubingh J, van der Spek A, Fliers E, Boelen A. The Role of Thyroid Hormone in the Innate and Adaptive Immune Response during Infection. Compr Physiol 2020;10:1277-87. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c200003.
16. De Luca R, Davis PJ, Lin HY, Gionfra F, Percario ZA, Affabris E, et al. Thyroid Hormones Interaction With Immune Response, Inflammation and Non-thyroidal Illness Syndrome. Front Cell Dev Biol 2021;8:614030. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2020.614030.
17. Perrotta C, Buldorini M, Assi E, Cazzato D, De Palma C, Clementi E, et al. The thyroid hormone triiodothyronine controls macrophage maturation and functions: protective role during inflammation. Am J Pathol 2014;184:230-47. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2013.10.006.
18. Daraei M, Hasibi M, Abdollahi H, Mirabdolhagh Hazaveh M, Zebaradst J, Hajinoori M, et al. Possible role of hypothyroidism in the prognosis of COVID-19. Intern Med J 2020;50:1410-12. doi: 10.1111/imj.15000.
19. Pagana KD, Pagana TJ. Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests-E-Book: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013.
20. van Vliet NA, Kamphuis AEP, den Elzen WPJ, Blauw GJ, Gussekloo J, Noordam R, et al. Thyroid Function and Risk of Anemia: A Multivariable-Adjusted and Mendelian Randomization Analysis in the UK Biobank. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2022;107:e643-e652. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgab674.
21. Paolee Y, Foocharoen C, Charoensri S, Mayxay M, Mahakkanukrauh A, Suwannaroj S, et al. The prevalence and clinical features associated of hypothyroidism among Thai systemic sclerosis patients. Sci Rep 2021;11:14902. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-94371-6.
22. Oh SM, Skendelas JP, Macdonald E, Bergamini M, Goel S, Choi J, et al. On-admission anemia predicts mortality in COVID-19 patients: A single center, retrospective cohort study. Am J Emerg Med 2021;48:140-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2021.03.083.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


Ethics code: IR.MEDILAM.REC.1401.023

XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Kaffashian M R, Bagheri M, Mozafari A A, Karimian M, Salari S. How Does Hypothyroidism Prolong Hospital Stay in COVID-19 Patients?. J. Ilam Uni. Med. Sci. 2023; 30 (6) :45-51
URL: http://sjimu.medilam.ac.ir/article-1-7655-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 30, Issue 6 (2-2023) Back to browse issues page
مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایلام Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.16 seconds with 41 queries by YEKTAWEB 4646