[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 29, Issue 5 (11-2021) ::
Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences 2021, 29(5): 22-31 Back to browse issues page
Investigation of the Prevalence of Anabolic Steroid Misuse, as Well as the Awareness Level and Attitude toward its Negative Effects among the Male Bodybuilder Athletes in Kermanshah, Iran, in 2019
Mehry Hoseini1 , Bahram Yousefi * 2, Ali Ashraf Khazaei3
1- Dep of sport management, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
2- Dept of Sport Management, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran , bahramyoosefy@yahoo.com
3- Dept of Sport Management, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
Abstract:   (824 Views)
Introduction: There have been several reports showing that the rate of anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse has increased in athlete and non-athlete adolescents. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of anabolic steroid misuse, as well as the awareness level and attitude toward its negative effects on male bodybuilder athletes in Kermanshah, Iran.
Material & Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2019. The statistical population included all male bodybuilder athletes in Kermanshah, Iran. The data were collected using a 25- item self-reported anabolic-androgenic steroids questionnaire (demographic characteristics: n=7, awareness level: n=9, attitudes: n=5, and the prevalence of abuse: n=5) which was distributed using the multi-stage clustering method among 250 male bodybuilder athletes in Kermanshah, Iran. The obtained data were analyzed in SPSS software (version 22) through descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean±SD) and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient). A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Findings: The results indicated that anabolic-androgenic steroid use was prevalent in 65.2% of the subjects. The most common cause was to increase muscle mass and strength. According to the results of this study, the prevalence of androgenic-androgenic steroid use showed a significant inverse relationship with attitude (r=-0.78; P=0.021), awareness (r=-0.73; P=0.032), an education level (r=-0.79; P=0.022). Moreover, sports background correlated significantly with the prevalence of androgenic-androgenic steroid use (r=0.68; P=0.035), attitude (r=0.84; P=0.013), and awareness (r=0.85; P=0.012).
Discussion & Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated the high dose of anabolic-androgenic steroid use; moreover, the awareness level of the athletes was low in this regard. The low level of awareness, false attitude, and access to these steroids can lead to an increase in the use of them among athletes and different populations. Accordingly, health care professionals and sports specialists should consider these issues in the development of prevention plans and programs.
Keywords: Anabolic steroids, Athlete, Attitude, Awareness
Full-Text [PDF 549 kb]   (290 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2021/01/10 | Accepted: 2021/06/29 | Published: 2021/11/8
References
1. Dacey M, Baltzell A, Zaichkowsky LJAjohb. Older adults' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation toward physical activity. 2008;32(6):570-82. doi: 10.5555/ajhb.2008.32.6.570
2. Arazi H, Hosseini RJJoGUoMS. The prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroids abuse, knowledge and attitue of their side effects, and attitude toward them among the bodybuilding athletes in Rasht. 2011;20(80):34-41. (Persian)
3. Pedersen W, Wichstrøm L, Blekesaune MJJoiv. Violent behaviors, violent victimization, and doping agents: A normal population study of adolescents. 2001; 16(8):808-32. doi.org/10.1177/088626001016008005
4. Peters MA, Phelps LJPitS. Body image dissatisfaction and distortion, steroid use, and sex differences in college age bodybuilders. 2001;38(3):283-9. doi.org/10.1002/pits.1018
5. Lundholm L, Käll K, Wallin S, Thiblin IJD, dependence a. Use of anabolic androgenic steroids in substance abusers arrested for crime. 2010;111(3):doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.04.020
6. Achar S, Rostamian A, Narayan SMJTAjoc. Cardiac and metabolic effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse on lipids, blood pressure, left ventricular dimensions, and rhythm. 2010; 15;106(6):893-901. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2010.05.013
7. Street C, Antonio J, Cudlipp DJCJoAP. Androgen use by athletes: a reevaluation of the health risks. 1996;21(6):421-40. doi.org/10.1139/h96-038
8. Kargarfard M, GHIAS M, KarimZadegan A, Kashi A. Assumption of anabolic-androgenic steroids among Isfahan University students: prevalence, and awareness about their side effects. 2006; 12(2):12-20. doi 10.22038/JFMH.2006.1805
9. Katzung BG. Basic and clinical pharmacology: McGraw-Hill Education; 2017; 3(2):33-40. doi.org/10.2344/0003-3006-60.1.25
10. Jean D. Androgens in, Goodman Gilman A; Rall TW, Nies AS. Goodman and Gilman‘s the pharmacological basis of Therapeutics. pergamon press, USA; 1991; 14(3):24-29. doi.org/10.1001/jama.1997.03550060100050
11. Perry PJ, Andersen KH, Yates WRJTAjosm. Illicit anabolic steroid use in athletes: a case series analysis. 1990;18(4):422-8.doi.org/10.1177%2F036354659001800416
12. Naghdi H, Mohammadi SJJoKUoMS. Prevalence and awareness of the side effects of anabolic steroid use among school students in Kurdistan, 2012. 2013;17(3):206-9. (Persian)
13. Socas L, Zumbado M, Perez-Luzardo O, Ramos A, Perez C, Hernandez J, et al. Hepatocellular adenomas associated with anabolic androgenic steroid abuse in bodybuilders: a report of two cases and a review of the literature. 2005;39(5): 27-33.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2004.013599
14. Kristiansen M, Levy-Milne R, Barr S, Flint AJIJoSN, Metabolism E. Dietary supplement use by varsity athletes at a Canadian university. 2005;15(2):195-210. doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.15.2.195
15. Nojoomi M, Behravan V. Study of anabolic steroids and the awareness of their complications in bodybuilding athletes in Karaj (2003). Razi Journal of Medical Sciences. 2005;11(44):1057-63. (Persian)
16. Kashi A, Kargarfard M, Moulavi H. Ergogenic substance in body building athletes: prevalence, cognitive and awareness of about their side effects. 2006;2(1):13-20. (Persian)
17. Arazi H, Hosseini R. The prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroids abuse, knowledge and attitue of their side effects, and attitude toward them among the bodybuilding athletes in Rasht. Journal of Guilan University of Medical Sciences. 2011;20(80):34-41. (Persian)
18. Eskandarion M, Kheirvari Khezerloo J, Hemmatian S, Tabasi M, Ghorbani R. Prevalence of Anabolic Steroids among the Male Bodybuilding Athletes and Rate of Awareness to Side Effects in Shahrud. Iranian Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2019;25(1):1-7. (Persian)
19. Naqvi SY, Flaherty G. Knowledge, and Attitudes of Amateur Sports Participants Regarding the Cardiac Risks Associated with the Use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids. IOSR Journal of Sports and Physical Education. 2016:36-44. doi.org/10.9790/6737-03033644
20. Laure P, Lecerf T, Friser A, Binsinger CJIjosm. Drugs, recreational drug use and attitudes towards doping of high school athletes. 2004;25(02):133-8. doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-819946
21. Green GA, Uryasz FD, Petr TA, Bray CDJCjosm. NCAA study of substance use and abuse habits of college student-athletes. 2001;11(1):51-6. doi.org/10.1097/00042752-200101000-00009
22. Evans NA. Current concepts in anabolic-androgenic steroids. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2004;32(2):534-42. doi.org/1177/0363546503262202
23. Laure P, Binsinger C. Doping prevalence among preadolescent athletes: a 4-year follow-up. British journal of sports medicine. 2007;41(10):660-3. doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2007.035733
24. Mobasheri A, Proudman CJ. Cobalt chloride doping in racehorses: Concerns over a potentially lethal practice. The Veterinary Journal. 2015;205(3):335-8. doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.04.005
25. McNamee MJ. The spirit of sport and the medicalisation of anti-doping: empirical and normative ethics. Asian bioethics review. 2012; 4(4):374-92. doi.org/10.4324/9781003075004-22
26. Node K, Michishita R, Tsuruta T, Shono N, Inoue T. Effect of exercise therapy on monocyte and neutrophil counts in overweight women. The American journal of the medical sciences. 2010;339(2):152-6. doi.org/10.1097/maj.0b013e3181c6a980
27. Jabari M, Al-shehri H, Al-faris A, Al-sayed M, Algaeed F, Al-sobaie N, et al. The prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroid use amongst athletes in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Electronic physician. 2016;8(12):3343. doi.org/10.19082/3343
28. Fayyazi Bordbar MR, Abdollahian E, Samadi R, Dolatabadi H. Frequency of use, awareness, and attitudes toward side effects of anabolic–androgenic steroids consumption among male medical students in Iran. Substance use & misuse. 2014;49(13):1751-8. doi.org/10.3109/10826084.2014.880175
29. Arazi H, Salehi A. Attitude and Awareness of Male Bodybuilders Toward Adverse Effects of Anabolic-androgenic Steroids in Qazvin, Iran. Iranian Journal of Epidemiology. 2014;9(3):45-53. (Persian)
30. Robles‐Diaz M, Gonzalez‐Jimenez A, Medina‐Caliz I, Stephens C, García‐Cortes M, García‐Muñoz B, et al. Distinct phenotype of hepatotoxicity associated with illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2015;41(1):116-25. doi.org/10.1111/apt.13023
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA

Ethics code: 1449760



XML   Persian Abstract   Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Hoseini M, Yousefi B, Ashraf Khazaei A. Investigation of the Prevalence of Anabolic Steroid Misuse, as Well as the Awareness Level and Attitude toward its Negative Effects among the Male Bodybuilder Athletes in Kermanshah, Iran, in 2019. Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences 2021; 29 (5) :22-31
URL: http://sjimu.medilam.ac.ir/article-1-6954-en.html


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 29, Issue 5 (11-2021) Back to browse issues page
مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایلام Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.15 seconds with 31 queries by YEKTAWEB 4541